Kyrgyzstan is a democratic, parliamentary republic with strong presidential power.

The parliament, unicameral 120-seat Supreme Council, is elected every five years under a proportional system. The Social Democratic Party won the October 2015 election, gaining 38 seats. Other major parliamentary parties include the Respublika — Ata Zhurt bloc, which supports former President Kurbanbek Bakiyev, and the Kyrgyzstan Party.

The president is the head of state and is elected for one six-year term.

Kyrgyzstan is the member of the Eurasian Economic Union, a post-Soviet economic bloc, which also includes Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia.

In the past ten years, the Kyrgyz Republic has seen several waves of political crisis. In 2005, mass protests led to the ouster of President Askar Akayev, who had ruled the county since the crash of the Soviet Union.

In 2010, President Kurbanbek Bakiev was ousted after a string of violent protests against his government.  Opposition took the power and formed a transitional government.

In 2011, Kyrgyzstan saw a peaceful power change. Almazbek Atynbayev, an advocate of closer relations with Russia, has been the president since then.